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QBASIC Programming for Kids,by Ted Felix

Web26/06/ · Binary Robot is one of the many choices in automated trading software that can choose to buy or pass on your stock options. What sets this one apart is the WebHere is a list of the pros of using binary options robots: • The robot never gets tired of trading. You can use it to trade non-stop. • The robot never gets emotional about trading Web11/02/ · Most Profitable Binary Options Robot in The use of binary options robots have been on the rise, perhaps because of the various benefits that come with it. WebBinbot pro is the top choice for all level of traders due to its solid grid trading strategy. The robot is optimized for all the major currency pairs. They have 24/7 customers support for Web6 rows · We compiled a list of our top picks for the best binary options auto trading software based on a ... read more

Trading cryptocurrency via binary trades is also booming. The volatile nature of cryptos makes them a popular binary asset. Bitcoin and Ethereum remain the most traded, but you can find brokers that list 50 or more alt coins. The expiry time is the point at which a trade is closed and settled. The expiry for any given trade can range from 30 seconds, up to a year. While binaries initially started with very short expiries, demand has ensured there is now a broad range of expiry times available.

Some brokers even give traders the flexibility to set their own specific expiry time. While slow to react to binary options initially, regulators around the world are now starting to regulate the industry and make their presence felt. The major regulators currently include:. There are also regulators operating in Malta, Japan and the Isle of Man.

Many other authorities are now taking a keen a interest in binaries specifically, notably in Europe where domestic regulators are keen to bolster the CySec regulation. Unregulated brokers still operate, and while some are trustworthy, a lack of regulation is a clear warning sign for potential new customers.

Recently, ESMA European Securities and Markets Authority moved to ban the sale and marketing of binary options in the EU. The ban however, only applies to brokers regulated in the EU. This leaves traders two choices to keep trading: Firstly, they can trade with an unregulated firm — this is extremely high risk and not advisable.

Some unregulated firms are responsible and honest, but many are not. The second choice is to use a firm regulated by bodies outside of the EU. ASIC in Australia are a strong regulator — but they will not be implementing a ban.

This means ASIC regulated firms can still accept EU traders. See our broker lists for regulated or trusted brokers in your region.

There is also a third option. A professional trader can continue trading at EU regulated brokers such as IQ Option. To be classed as professional, an account holder must meet two of these three criteria:. We have a lot of detailed guides and strategy articles for both general education and specialized trading techniques. Below are a few to get you started if you want to learn the basic before you start trading.

From Martingale to Rainbow, you can find plenty more on the strategy page. For further reading on signals and reviews of different services go to the signals page. If you are totally new to the trading scene then watch this great video by Professor Shiller of Yale University who introduces the main ideas of options:. The ability to trade the different types of binary options can be achieved by understanding certain concepts such as strike price or price barrier, settlement, and expiration date.

All trades have dates at which they expire. In addition, the price targets are key levels that the trader sets as benchmarks to determine outcomes.

We will see the application of price targets when we explain the different types. Expiry times can be as low as 5 minutes. How does it work? First, the trader sets two price targets to form a price range. The best way to use the tunnel binaries is to use the pivot points of the asset.

If you are familiar with pivot points in forex, then you should be able to trade this type. This type is predicated on the price action touching a price barrier or not. If the price action does not touch the price target the strike price before expiry, the trade will end up as a loss.

Here you are betting on the price action of the underlying asset not touching the strike price before the expiration. There are variations of this type where we have the Double Touch and Double No Touch. Here the trader can set two price targets and purchase a contract that bets on the price touching both targets before expiration Double Touch or not touching both targets before expiration Double No Touch. Normally you would only employ the Double Touch trade when there is intense market volatility and prices are expected to take out several price levels.

Some brokers offer all three types, while others offer two, and there are those that offer only one variety. In addition, some brokers also put restrictions on how expiration dates are set. In order to get the best of the different types, traders are advised to shop around for brokers who will give them maximum flexibility in terms of types and expiration times that can be set.

Trading via your mobile has been made very easy as all major brokers provide fully developed mobile trading apps. Most trading platforms have been designed with mobile device users in mind. So the mobile version will be very similar, if not the same, as the full web version on the traditional websites. Brokers will cater for both iOS and Android devices, and produce versions for each. Downloads are quick, and traders can sign up via the mobile site as well.

Our reviews contain more detail about each brokers mobile app, but most are fully aware that this is a growing area of trading. Traders want to react immediately to news events and market updates, so brokers provide the tools for clients to trade wherever they are. So, in short, they are a form of fixed return financial options. The steps above will be the same at every single broker.

Call and Put are simply the terms given to buying or selling an option. If a trader thinks the underlying price will go up in value , they can open a call. But where they expect the price to go down , they can place a put trade. Others drop the phrases put and call altogether. Almost every trading platform will make it absolutely clear which direction a trader is opening an option in.

As a financial investment tool binary options are not a scam, but there are brokers, trading robots and signal providers that are untrustworthy and dishonest. The point is not to write off the concept of binary options, based solely on a handful of dishonest brokers. The image of these financial instruments has suffered as a result of these operators, but regulators are slowly starting to prosecute and fine the offenders and the industry is being cleaned up.

Our forum is a great place to raise awareness of any wrongdoing. Binary trading strategies are unique to each trade. We have a binary options strategy section, and there are ideas that traders can experiment with. Technical analysis is of use to some traders, combined with charts , indicators and price action research.

Money management is essential to ensure risk management is applied to all trading. Different styles will suit different traders and strategies will also evolve and change. Traders need to ask questions of their investing aims and risk appetite and then learn what works for them.

This will depend entirely on the habits of the trader. With no strategy or research, then any short term investment is going to win or lose based only on luck. Conversely, a trader making a well researched trade will ensure they have done all they can to avoid relying on good fortune.

Binary options can be used to gamble, but they can also be used to make trades based on value and expected profits. So the answer to the question will come down to the behavior of the individual trader. Any investment or trade will be a gamble if done with no skill or knowledge. If you have traded forex or its more volatile cousins, crude oil or spot metals such as gold or silver, you will have probably learnt one thing: these markets carry a lot of risk and it is very easy to be blown off the market.

Things like leverage and margin, news events, slippages and price re-quotes, etc can all affect a trade negatively. The situation is different in binary options trading. There is no leverage to contend with, and phenomena such as slippage and price re-quotes have no effect on binary option trade outcomes. The binary options market allows traders to trade financial instruments spread across the currency and commodity markets as well as indices and bonds.

This flexibility is unparalleled, and gives traders with the knowledge of how to trade these markets, a one-stop shop to trade all these instruments. A binary trade outcome is based on just one parameter: direction.

The trader is essentially betting on whether a financial asset will end up in a particular direction. In addition, the trader is at liberty to determine when the trade ends, by setting an expiry date. This gives a trade that initially started badly the opportunity to end well.

This is not the case with other markets. For example, control of losses can only be achieved using a stop loss. Otherwise, a trader has to endure a drawdown if a trade takes an adverse turn in order to give it room to turn profitable.

The simple point being made here is that in binary options, the trader has less to worry about than if he were to trade other markets. Traders have better control of trades in binaries. For example, if a trader wants to buy a contract, he knows in advance, what he stands to gain and what he will lose if the trade is out-of-the-money. For example, when a trader sets a pending order in the forex market to trade a high-impact news event, there is no assurance that his trade will be filled at the entry price or that a losing trade will be closed out at the exit stop loss.

It simply printed a blank line on the screen. This can be useful for making the output from your program look nicer. As always, go ahead and customize it.

Change "No way! Adding CASEs Go ahead and try adding a new fortune. You'll need to change. since there will be 6 fortunes now. Then you will need to add a " CASE 6 " and a PRINT to print the new fortune. Back in Chapter 4 we saw a DO LOOP that went forever.

There are a number of ways to make a loop stop. One way is to use WHILE. The condition on the LOOP WHILE line is the same as a condition we might use in an IF If it doesn't, we fall out of the loop and our program ends. That last program works great, as long as the user always types in a lowercase "y".

What happens if the user types in "yes"? Probably not a good idea. We have the same problem if our user enters a capital "Y". Try a few of these to see what I mean. There are several ways to make this program smarter and easier to use for our users. We could have it check for a few different ways of saying yes by using "OR", like this:.

This version will allow the user to enter "y" or "Y" and the program will run again. You could even enter "yep" or "YEAH! This may seem to make the computer smarter, but we know what's really going on. To prove the computer really isn't very smart, try entering "sure" or "yellow". It thinks "sure" is "no", and "yellow" is "yes". As an example, if we have:. This program will print the first character of whatever you enter, followed by the first two characters, followed by the first three characters:.

Tired of all this black and white? Then the COLOR statement is for you. Try this program for size:. COLOR takes two numbers. The first number is the foreground color. The second number is the background color. For example, if you want to print black on white instead of white on black, use "COLOR 0,7".

The colors each have their own number:. There are plenty of other colors too. Try the numbers from 8 through 15 to see what colors you get. Basically, if you add 8 to any of the above colors, you get brighter versions of the same color. Take blue which is 1 and add 8 and you get 9 which is bright blue.

Adding 16 to a color number gives you a blinking version. This doesn't work in a DOS window, though. Try this program:. NEXT is a loop like DO LOOP, but a FOR NEXT loop has its own counter built in. That will count by 2's from 2 to STEP tells QBASIC what to count by.

Try changing it to count by 10's from 10 to SOUND lets you play a beep and tell it how high or low the beep will be, and how long it will last. This program makes a Hz beep for about 1 second:. PLAY is like a little programming language inside of QBASIC. If you are familiar with sheet music, this will make sense.

Here's a scale:. There are many more special commands in PLAY. Check the QBASIC help for a list of all of them. Since PLAY doesn't do triplets, you have to modify the tempo to get the right rhythm. PLAY begins with a default tempo of "T" which means quarter notes per minute. In the above song, we switch to T which is the triplet tempo for T By multiplying our tempo by 1.

When the triplets are done, we switch back to the regular tempo. You can see in the above example that we switch back and forth between the main tempo T and the triplet tempo T several times as needed. As with everything, there's more than one way to do triplets. Using this technique, 16th note triplets are 24th notes, etc You just multiply the note value by 1.

Each of these techniques has its advantages and disadvantages. The tempo-changing technique uses more space, but the notes retain their values. The 12th note technique is more compact, but not as easy to understand. Which one you use is up to you. Just make sure the next person to read your code understands what you are doing. Comments are a good idea. The two numbers after LOCATE are the coordinates where the print will be. Just like coordinates in math class, these numbers give the row and the column.

The first number in LOCATE is the row, or how far down the screen the print will start. The second number is the column, or how far over the print will start. Let's use some random numbers, COLOR and LOCATE to make a more interesting version of our first looping program:. Use WIDTH 40 for big text. It changes the entire screen to wide text mode. Use WIDTH 80 to go back to normal size text. Unfortunately, you won't see the big text in a window. There are many special symbols and other characters you can display that aren't on the keyboard.

That prints a couple of smiley faces. There are plenty of other characters too. This program will show you many, but not all of them:. So far, we've only been dealing with text words and numbers. How do we do pictures in QBASIC? First, we need to use SCREEN to change from text mode to graphics mode.

SCREEN lets you select a "graphics" screen instead of the "text" screen we've been using. This will let you draw pictures. In the next program, we'll use DRAW to draw a square on the screen in SCREEN 12 graphics mode. There are many other SCREEN numbers you can use, but 12 is probably the easiest to work with. It gives you a lot of space and the color numbers are familiar. QBASIC Help explains all the possible values of SCREEN. You can always try them and see what happens.

DRAW is kind of like the turtle in the programming language Logo. With DRAW, you can move around the screen and draw lines along the way. In the above example we used the following DRAW commands:. DRAW can do a lot more than that. It is like PLAY. It's a small programming language inside of QBASIC. Look at QBASIC Help for a complete description of everything it can do.

Here's a filled in box:. Finally, here's something very Logo-like:. This lets DRAW turn to the angle in the variable I. It's not quite as easy as Logo, but it's still pretty impressive.

QBASIC also lets you draw using a coordinate system. It's like drawing graphs on graph paper. LINE lets you draw a line between two points. The points are specified in x, y coordinates. You may have seen this when learning about graphs in math class. In QBASIC, the coordinates are almost the same. The only thing that is different is the Y coordinate. In QBASIC, the Y coordinate is upside down. The line ends at , which is the center of the screen.

The last number is the color 15 which is bright white. The coordinate , tells the computer where to put the center of the circle. Notice how that circle was not filled in. LINE has a "BF" option that will let us fill in the boxes it draws.

CIRCLE has no such option, so we have to use PAINT:. PAINT fills an area with a color. It stops painting when it runs into a certain color on the screen. The coordinate , tells PAINT where to start filling in, and the first "15" tells PAINT to use bright white as the paint color. The second "15" tells PAINT to stop painting when it runs into anything that is bright white. Up to now, we've been using INPUT to get things from the keyboard.

The problem with INPUT is that our program stops until the user presses the enter key. Wouldn't it be nice to keep the program running and still be able to get input from the keyboard? Let's fix the clock program to let the user press any key to stop the program. This way the user doesn't have to know about the Break key. Not bad at all.

Now we don't need to teach the user about the Break key. We can do the same thing in any of our other programs that need the Break key. This is very useful in game programming where the arrow keys might control a player in a game. If you press an arrow key, you'll see that a space and a letter are generated.

It's just a fancy word for putting things together, one after another. It's much easier done than said. Instead, it puts them together. Since the 3 characters on the left happen to be "Ted", this program prints "Ted" as expected. Try changing the number to 2 or 5 and see what happens. This gives us the word in the middle: "two". This would be a pretty sneaky way to hide something like a password in a program.

Someone who didn't know how to program in QBASIC might not be able to figure it out. In other words, upper and lower case are ignored.

Here's an improvement to a previous program. In this new version, the user can type "mike", "Mike" or even "MIKE" and the name will be recognized. The second argument is the character you want to repeat. LEN is handy in FOR loops when you aren't sure how long the string is, and you don't feel like counting it yourself:. Computers really only know about numbers. To make strings of letters, computers convert letters to numbers so they can work with them.

We've already seen this in a previous chapter. That program displays all the character numbers from 14 through followed by the characters that they represent. Try it:. There are other interesting things as well. That program prints 65 because the character code for a capital "A" is The code that QBASIC uses to convert letters to numbers is called "ASCII" pronounced "askee". INSTR lets you search for a string in another string. If it finds the string, it will tell you where it is. That program prints "7" because "every" is found at the 7th position in "Hello everyone".

If the string isn't found, INSTR returns zero. Most programming languages allow you to add notes to your programs that are ignored by the computer. This lets you explain what you've done to someone else who might read your program later. In QBASIC we use the apostrophe ' to begin a comment. Here's an example:. The computer will ignore all those comment lines, but us humans can read them and remember how a program works.

Good programmers use comments to help others understand what they have done. Comments can also help us remember what we did when we come back to a program after working on something else for a while. Another way to make your programs easier to understand is to use constants. Constants look and act like variables, but they cannot be changed.

Here's a useful program:. If we didn't use the constant Pi, we would have to copy the number 3. Using a constant makes the program easier to read and understand. It also keeps us from making mistakes when copying. When programs get big, you need to break them into smaller pieces that are easier to work with. QBASIC calls these pieces "sub-procedures" or SUBs. Other programming languages have other names, like procedures, subroutines, or subprograms. To work with SUBs in QBASIC, we need to look at the "SUBs" dialog box which shows us a list of our SUBs.

Select "View SUBs You can also press the F2 key to get there more quickly. In here, you can select a SUB to work with, or you can select the main module.

If you are just starting with a clean slate File New you'll see that the main module is called "Untitled", and there are no SUBs. You can define a new SUB in QBASIC simply by typing it in. This will jump you to the view of the new SUB.

Try typing this:. Notice that after you pressed enter on the first line, you were taken to a new screen with just your new SUB in it. Now, if you go to the SUBs dialog box View SUBs Now we need to go back to the Main Module "Untitled" to actually use the new SUB.

From the menu, select View SUBs to get the SUBs dialog box. Now double-click on "Untitled" to get back to the Main Module. The screen will go blank, but don't worry, your SUB is still out there. Now type this in and run it:.

Let's try adding another SUB. See if you can remember the steps on your own. Refer back to the previous example if you need help. Now we need to change the Main Module to use our new SUB. So, go back to the Main Module, and change it to look like this:. Sometimes you want to pass numbers or strings to a SUB. QBASIC lets you do this. Here is a new version of the DrawCircle SUB:.

This version lets us pass in the Radius. When we do this, Radius is called a "parameter" or "argument" to our SUB. Here's how we would then pass an argument from the Main Module:. If you need to tell the main module something, you can change one of the arguments in your SUB, and the main module will see the change. When you run that program, it will print the value 1 on the screen. This is because the value of I is changed by the AddOne SUB. If you only need to return one value, a FUNCTION is sometimes a better choice.

FUNCTIONs are described later. If you happen to put parentheses around an argument, that argument will not be changed by the SUB. Try this change to the last program:. This will print 1 and then 1 again. The parentheses around the "I" keep the SUB from making any changes to I.

What if we had variables in the Main Module and in a SUB that happen to have the same name. Would they be the same variable? Let's find out. Enter this SUB:. And run it. Scope said "0" because to Scope, X was a new variable. Main Module said 15, because Scope didn't change Main Module's X, it changed it's own X.

Scope's X and Main Module's X are different variables. Variables that you create in a SUB cannot be seen by the Main Module. Variables in the Main Module cannot be seen by a SUB. If you need to share variables, you can pass them as arguments to the SUB. Introduce global data and statics last instead of functions last. In fact, quarantine SHARED and STATIC into a separate chapter and move it to the end of the book.

What I've done here is like introducing GOTO first. Also write a GOTO chapter and put it at the end of the book as well. It is possible to make variables in the Main Module available to SUBs without passing them as arguments. Add a "SHARED X" to the Scope SUB like this:. Now when you run it, you'll see that the Scope SUB can now see the Main Module's X.

Scope no longer has its own X. This is called "Global Data" since it can be seen by everyone and should be avoided if you can. Most programmers consider this dangerous since it is hard to know which SUB might change a global variable.

You can also make a variable global to all SUBs from the Main Module by adding a "DIM SHARED" to the main module before you set X to This makes it easier to see which variables are global since they can be found in the Main Module.

The problem is that this makes a variable global to every SUB in your program. Usually, only some SUBs need to see a global variable. It is better to use SHARED within your SUB in that case. When you start worrying about SUBs and the Main Module sharing variables, you are probably ready to begin learning Object Oriented programming. Object Oriented programming makes it easier to share variables between SUBs and still write code that is easy to understand. Visual BASIC, Java, and C are programming languages that provide Object Oriented programming features, and are fairly easy to learn.

Notice that each time you call a SUB, its variables are lost after the SUB is over. Not a very good counter, since it always prints "1". We can use STATIC to tell QBASIC that we don't want C to go away after the SUB is over.

Then we will get the behavior we expect. Change the Counter SUB like this:. Object Oriented programming languages offer many ways to avoid the use of STATIC variables.

If you find yourself making lots of STATIC variables, it is probably time to learn an Object Oriented programming language.

As you've been entering the example programs in this chapter, you may have noticed that the QBASIC editor adds "DECLARE" statements to the programs. Why does it do this? The DECLARE statement is a warning to QBASIC to let it know that there are SUBs or FUNCTIONs in this program. Without this warning, QBASIC would have no idea what we mean when we call a SUB or FUNCTION.

It would think it had found a syntax error and the program would stop. Fortunately, QBASIC handles making DECLAREs for us. Unfortunately, in larger programs, it might put the DECLAREs someplace that looks ugly. Fortunately, you can move the DECLAREs anywhere you want as long as it is before the FUNCTION or SUB is first used and QBASIC still takes care of the rest.

QBASIC offers five built-in types. Each of these types can be specified by a single character after the variable name. You can also specify a type using a DIM statement. It is important to pick the right types when you are writing a program. The following descriptions of each type will help you make the right decisions. The single-precision type handles numbers with decimals. You can go up to seven digits with a single-precision variable. In a DIM statement, use "SINGLE" to create a single-precision variable.

The type-character for a single-precision variable is "! Unless you do something special, any variable without a type character is single-precision. Here are some examples of creating and using single-precision variables:. Notice that the DIM statement can be used to tell QBASIC the type of a variable.

Then you don't need to use a type character for that variable. The string type handles strings of characters. You cannot do math with string variables.

In a DIM statement, use "STRING" to create a string variable. Here are some examples of creating and using string variables:. The integer type handles numbers without decimals. Integers may range from to Math with integers may be faster than math with single-precision variables. For programs that have to run very fast, using integers might be useful. In a DIM statement, use "INTEGER" to create an integer variable.

Here are some examples of creating and using integer variables:. Since math with integers is very fast, you will commonly see the following line near the beginning of QBASIC programs:. This tells QBASIC to stop assuming that every variable is single-precision, and instead to assume that all variables are integers.

The long-integer type handles numbers without decimals. Long-integers may range from to Math with long-integers is usually almost as fast as math with integers.

For programs that have to run very fast, using long-integers might be useful. In a DIM statement, use "LONG" to create a long-integer variable. Here are some examples of creating and using long-integer variables:. The double-precision type handles numbers with decimals.

You can go up to fifteen digits with a double-precision variable. Double-precision variables are used where very accurate math is needed. In a DIM statement, use "DOUBLE" to create a double-precision variable.

The type-character for a double-precision variable is " ". Here are some examples of creating and using double-precision variables:. An array lets you store a list of things. Arrays are very similar to variables, but they hold more than one thing. The number inside the parenthesis " 1 " is called the "subscript". Arrays are limited to holding only 11 items 0 through If you go over 10, you'll get a "Subscript out of range" error.

To make bigger arrays, you can use DIM to tell QBASIC how big the array will be:. Arrays are perfect for programs that need to keep a list of things. You could use arrays to make a phone book program, or a program that keeps track of the people in your class at school. Sometimes you'll want to put a bunch of different kinds of variables together because all together they describe something.

QBASIC's TYPE statement lets you create your own collections of variables. TYPE makes our new type, or collection of variables. DIM makes a new variable of that type. When we work with types, we use the variable name, followed by a dot ". Since TYPE lets you use a single variable to represent a collection of variables, you can use TYPE to pass many parameters to a SUB at once.

This may be a good way to avoid using SHARED too much in a SUB. In QBASIC, a TYPE can hold any of the built-in types. A TYPE can also hold another TYPE. However, a TYPE cannot hold an array. Visual BASIC allows that, but not QBASIC. Up to now, we've been using string variables to hold strings and number variables to hold numbers. What if we really need to do some math with numbers that are in a string variable?

Or maybe we need to get some numbers into a string variable somehow. Need to cover CINT , FIX , INT , CDBL , CSNG , CLNG Chapter 28 - PRINT USING Chapter 29 - DATA and READ Loading an array with a lot of values can get pretty boring. To save space, and typing, QBASIC provides the DATA and READ statements. You can place a list of data values in a DATA statement and read them into an array using READ. The following program will do exactly what the previous program does.

QBASIC skips the DATA statements in the code. It only pays attention to them when it finds a READ statement. Each time a READ happens, QBASIC takes a value from the DATA statement and places it in the variable in the READ statement. DATA and READ can be very handy in graphics programs. See my Sprites in QBASIC tutorial for more. RESTORE tells QBASIC which DATA statement to start READing from.

You might need to load several different arrays in your program. RESTORE lets you organize the DATA statements any way you want. RESTORE tells QBASIC to start reading at the next DATA statement after a label. A label is a name like "Names:" or "Values:". Notice that when we make a new label, we use a colon ":", but when we use the label in the RESTORE statement, we drop the colon. DATA statements are perfect for loading a database. Here's a new version of the database example using DATA statements this time.

Up to now, our programs have depended on us, the programmer, to give them data to work with. This wouldn't work very well for a phone book program. The user should be the one to fill in the names and phone numbers. QBASIC will let us get information from the user with INPUT. But when the program ends, that information is gone.

The solution to this problem is to let the user enter their information, then the program will store that information in a file on the hard disk. QBASIC offers a number of ways to do this. When you run that program, and enter your name, it will place your name in a file on the hard disk called "testfile.

You can use Notepad to find it and make sure your name is there. You might need to figure out where QBASIC put the file. That can be a little tricky. If you exit QBASIC, and from the DOS prompt enter this:.

You should see your name, or whatever you entered. The "type" command at the DOS prompt copies the contents of a file to the screen. You could also try this:. That should bring up notepad with your file. When you are working with files, it is a good idea to know how to bring them up in notepad.

This way you can look at them to see if they contain what you expected. There are three statements, OPEN, WRITE, and CLOSE that are needed to write information to a file. The OPEN statement tells QBASIC three things:. Once the file is opened, we will use the file number to let QBASIC know which file we want to write to. You could have many files open at the same time, so the file number lets QBASIC know which file you want to work with.

It is very much like a PRINT statement, but instead of sending the information to the screen, WRITE sends the information to a file. Finally, we need to CLOSE the file, to let QBASIC know that we are done. Otherwise, QBASIC might not write anything to the file at all.

The CLOSE statement only needs to know which file you want to close, so it only requires the file number. There are three main things that are different in this program if you compare it to the previous program. One thing that hasn't changed at all is the CLOSE statement. We CLOSE file 1 so that QBASIC knows we are done with it. While we probably won't lose any data if we don't CLOSE in this case, it is still a good thing to do.

QBASIC can only open so many files, so if you leave some open, you might not be able to open any more. Sometimes it can be very useful to write to a file while a program is running so that you can look at what happened later. This is called "logging". We can use the "APPEND" option in the OPEN statement to open a file and simply keep adding to the end of it.

We've logged two things in this program, the program's start time, and it's end time. Run the program a few times, then exit QBASIC and type:. Let's say we want our program to remember who it is registered to.

We also want it to count how many times it has been run. We could try something like this:. But that doesn't work. To fix this, we need to use a file. We can read the file before the program starts, and write the file back out when the program is finished. We will save the user's name and the number of times the program has been run in this file.

The code to do this is a bit more complex than what we've done so far. This is because QBASIC handles file errors in a strange way. Our program must handle one file error. The first time it is run, there will be no registration file for it to read.

So the OPEN will fail. We have to handle this, or our program won't work. There we can get the error code which is in a QBASIC variable called "ERR" and copy it to our own variable "ErrorCode".

If we don't do this, we will lose the error code stored in ERR. RESUME NEXT tells QBASIC to continue from where the error occurred. I try very hard to avoid using GOTO in my programs. Programs that use GOTO can be very hard to understand. Unfortunately, in this case, QBASIC leaves us with no alternative.

We have to use a GOTO. So, I've tried to come up with the simplest solution that keeps the code from being too hard to follow. With this little error handler in place, we can simply assume that ErrorCode will contain the error number when something goes wrong. Just don't forget to reset it or you will be looking at old errors! In a computer, everything is numbers. Computers don't know about letters.

The only reason computers can store text is because that text is converted to numbers using a code called ASCII. The first way is to take the number, convert it to ASCII codes, then write those code numbers to the file.

This is what PRINT 1 does. Sequential means "one after another". When we write the user's name and the run count to the file, we write them one after another. This is sequential output. When we read the name and run count, we read them one after another. Name first, then run count. This is sequential input. It is very useful when you have very large files, and you don't have enough time or memory to read everything in the file sequentially one after another.

Imagine if the program has a bug and it writes to the wrong location in the file. The file could be destroyed because of this.

But, if you need it, it's in QBASIC. You've learned a lot. If you've made it through this far, and you are still having fun, then it's time to make up some of your own programs. QBASIC's help is what you should read through whenever you are curious about everything else QBASIC can do.

It can do a lot more than what I've shown you in this book. Some of the samples that follow may do things that you haven't seen mentioned in the book. See if you can find out what these new things are by looking them up in the help that comes with QBASIC.

Are you looking for the best binary options brokers? We have tested and compared most of the regulated binary options brokers and platforms in In this comparison can find the complete list of the best and most recommended brokers and platforms, in order to help you find the best binary options platform that will suit the beginner trader as well as the most expert traders. The comparison tables below list and ranks the different binary trading sites based on different criteria like minimum deposit, maximum return, regulations, and bonuses available.

You can also read our reviews about each broker and platform we recommend in this article, this information about brokers will help you compare them and make the best choice. In this comparison list, you will also find different tips on how to choose the best trading platform according to your personal needs, all of which will mainly depend on your affinity and preference as a binary options trader.

Brokers Payout Min. Table of Contents. io is probably one of the best binary options trading sites in our comparison. With a simple and intuitive trading platform, with no less than 22 trends indicator and oscillators, as well as the most precise trading signals that will help you in the development of your trading strategies. Quotex gives access to More than instruments such as Forex, commodities and indices. You can open a demo account without registration or deposit to practice binary options trading and develop your strategies.

Deposits and withdrawals are made by various popular payment methods such as Visa and MasterCard debit and credit cards, Skrill, Neteller, Yandex Money, WebMoney and Qiwi. IQ Option also allows you to speculate via contracts for difference CFDs on stocks, cryptocurrencies, and ETFs as well as on various digital options.

The IQ option trading platform is used to trade CFDs as well as to trade binary options and digital options. You can trade with leverage on different assets such as forex, commodities and stocks as well as on indices. IQ option is a CySEC Regulated broker and is MiFID compliant. However, clients outside the EEA operate with a company called IQ Option Ltd. which is based in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Pocket Option is one of the best brokers for binary options trading. Pocket option allows you to trade online with over assets through its web platform, mobile app or MetaTrader 5 trading platform.

This binary options broker operates under the company name Gembell Limited which is located in the Marshall Islands.

It is a serious offshore broker for trading stocks, commodities, forex, currencies, crypto currencies. This binary broker is regulated by IFMRRC and accepts clients from all over the world, including traders from the United States and Europe. It is very easy to open an account on Pocket Option and withdrawals are immediate. We find that this broker is very popular and appreciated by traders all over the world. You can trade binary options on a modern web platform and their trading app which has everything you need for a top level trading experience including popular indicators and signals.

In addition, many special features make the broker unique such as Copy Trading as well as other innovative features. Raceoption is one of the most renowned binary options companies. It is a serious binary options broker and provides a clear and intuitive trading platform. Launched in RaceOption operates under the company name Makerun Corp and is based in the Marshall Islands, it is one of the only binary option brokers to accept clients from the US and around the world.

You can also trade forex via CFDs as well as other assets available on the platform. RaceOption is one of the few binary option brokers to feature Copy Trading, which is a feature many traders like to familiarize with trading and copy top traders registered with the broker.

Unlike other brokers, access to customer service is very easy and this is done through a dialog box visible at the bottom right of your screen. However, you can deposit with crypto currencies like bitcoin, ethereum as well as other crypto currencies without fees as well as with Perfect Money electronic wallet. Created in , This broker operates under the name of Wave Makers LTD, a brokerage company based in Marshall Islands.

Just like other brokers that we list in this ranking of the best brokers, BinaryCent is not only a binary options broker, but also provides forex brokerage and contract for difference CFD services.

CFD gives you the advantage of being able to use leverage. This gives you the opportunity to take larger positions than you normally can and thus amplify your potential profits.

In terms of regulation, BinaryCent is a broker regulated by the Global Financial Services Authority GLOFSA. OlympTrade is a serious online trading broker that accepts traders from most countries of the world. This online brokerage companie are fully legal and officially registered and have received several awards for their professionalism. This Binary options broker is regulated by the International Finance Commission since which is an excellent point.

On our binary option broker list, OlympTrade is the best binary option broker with MT4 trading platform. yous can Explore the platform and test your trading strategies for free and can make quick and easy deposits and withdrawals with Bank Card, JCB, Union Pay, Neteller, Skrill, Perfect Money, WebMoney, Bitcoin, Tether USDT and Ethereum.

With this online broker, you can trade Currencies, Stocks, Metals, Indices, Commodities, Crypto, ETF and OTC assets with their platform or with the MT4 trading platform that many traders like for online trading. com started its activity in and is a renowned binary options broker that allows you to benefit from the same rates as traders in the interbank market.

All prices are in real time, compared to interbank options markets. This broker is one of the best in the binary options industry. With this broker you have access to a wide range of assets such as currencies, stock indices, commodities, and synthetic indices and you can choose expiration periods ranging from 10 seconds to days on binary option contracts.

con is licensed and regulated in the British Isles and in Malta since and operates with the strictest security standards in the industry by segregating your funds and holding them with secure and approved financial institutions. You can make your withdrawals and deposits with a wide variety of payment methods such as bank transfers, Visa, Mastercard and Maestro debit and credit cards and a multitude of electronic wallets such as Skrill, Neteller, WebMoney, QIWI, PaysafeCard, Sticpay, Airtm, PerfectMoney and FasaPay.

Binomo is a well-known brand in the online trading and binary options industry. This broker has won numerous awards, notably the IAIR Awards and the FE Awards. Binomo is regulated by the Financial Commission, an independent regulatory body that compensates clients for bad brokerage practices and litigation. With binomo you can trade simultaneously without restriction. Trader the week and gives you the opportunity to trade using a wide range of assets via binary options and CFDs.

Like most of the best brokers, you can trade with their app for iOS and Android as well as stay informed instantly about trade closings and markets closing, promotions and tournaments. With this broker, You can make deposits and withdrawals quickly via Visa, Mastercard and American Express cards as well as via JCB and China Union Pay.

ExpertOption is one of the leader in online trading industry and is trusted by more than 50,, clients. This broker received the award of the Best Trading Platform at China Trading Expo in May On ExpertOption, you can trade among more than assets and stocks and is continuously adding new financial instruments to have more and more market opportunities for traders. Instead of using classic trading platforms like MT4 and MetaTrader 5, this binary option broker has its own platform with 4 types of charts Area, Line, Bars and Candles 8 indicators Moving average, Bollinger bands, Alligator, Parabolic SAR, Fractal, RSI, Awesome oscillator and MACD and trend lines for your technical analysis.

Expert Option gives you the possibility to use a Social trading function too, which can help beginners as well as expert traders to copy the trades of the best traders. Deposits and withdrawals of money on Expert Option are fast and without commission.

They can do this with Visa, MasterCard and Maestro debit and credit cards as well as various payment methods such as skrill, Neteller, m pesa and JCB. The Broker Expert Option does not accept citizens and residents of the European Economic Area as well as other countries and regions of the world such as the United States, Canada, Russia, Switzerland, Israel, New Zealand, Australia, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Iran, North Korea and Yemen.

ai is a blockchain-based broker that uses crowdsourcing technology, which allows traders to trade directly against Specter. ai liquidity pool or against other traders. One of the particularity of this binary options broker is that it is entirely based on a set of audited and secure smart contracts. With the blockchain technology and integrated smart contract of this broker, you can trade directly from your own digital wallet without making a deposit.

This broker is also recommended to Muslim traders because it is a Sharia-compliant halal broker, with no hidden fees, no haram assets and with no-fee trading. This allows the trader who honors the Islamic faith to be able to trade their preferred assets while respecting their faith and beliefs. This broker is regulated by the CFTC which is one of the most renowned regulators in the online tarding industry and guarantees you financial compensation in the event of a dispute with the company.

Of course, this binary options broker accepts US American traders and gives them access to a whole range of derivative products such as binary options and other financial derivatives.

Brokers are essential intermediaries for any traders wanting to have access to the binary options market. Comparing brokers is an important step to ensure that you are trading binary options in good condition.

On our site, we have compiled a list of all the comparison factors that are important to your decision-making when choosing a broker. These criteria will help you select the broker suited to your needs with which to open an account:. There are several criteria that traders must use to select a suitable binary options broker:. Some binary options offer all trade types, while others are more restrictive. Some brokers have great depth and are able to offer financial assets for trading that cover the forex, commodity, futures and bond markets.

All of these factors will ultimately affect the way a trader plays the market, and ultimately, his profitability. For more information you can also read our article on choosing a binary options broker. Keeping this in view, we have tried to use these criteria to draw up what we feel are the best binary options brokers that traders can do business with. The list is not very exhaustive, but we consider this a good place to start. CFTC — Commodity Futures Trading Commission United States FCA — Financial Conduct Authority United Kingdom CySec — The Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission Cyprus and the EU FSB — Financial Services Board South Africa ASIC — Australian Securities and Investments Commission Australia.

So you should be taking this factor into account when choosing an online broker. The list below lists the main regulators of online trading, there are others besides the one mentioned below. Please also note that more and more brokers are regulated by more than one regulator.

In most cases, the most reputable brokers are generally regulated. The regulation and licensing of brokers should be considered when choosing your binary broker. This allows you to get your money back in the event of a problem or bad brokerage practices. Trading with a regulated broker gives you the guarantee that you are trading in good condition.

There are always serious and honest unregulated brokers out there, but many are untrustworthy. This means that a trader should take more care when trading with unregulated brokers. Opening a free demo account for binary options is the best way to get an overview of what the broker has to offer. This will allow you to familiarize yourself with their platform and test different trading strategies without risking your money.

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Web6 rows · We compiled a list of our top picks for the best binary options auto trading software based on a WebIn addition to binary options, IQ Cent also offers Forex brokerage services via CFDs. You can trade forex and CFDs with leverage up to , which sets them apart from most binary options brokers. Just like some other binary options platforms on our comparison, IQCent also offers these clients the possibility of using a Copy Trading function Web26/10/ · Key Findings. California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage. Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional Web26/06/ · Binary Robot is one of the many choices in automated trading software that can choose to buy or pass on your stock options. What sets this one apart is the WebHere is a list of the pros of using binary options robots: • The robot never gets tired of trading. You can use it to trade non-stop. • The robot never gets emotional about trading WebBinbot pro is the top choice for all level of traders due to its solid grid trading strategy. The robot is optimized for all the major currency pairs. They have 24/7 customers support for ... read more

You have to run it to find out. Most trips end up being pretty smelly without one. zip, you then need to unzip it and move qbasic. See our broker lists for regulated or trusted brokers in your region. As a cool shortcut, use? Traders have better control of trades in binaries.

This involves passing instructions from the application software, through the system software, to the hardware which ultimately receives the instruction as machine code. Along with using the strategies, you must have patience and avoid taking impulsive actions. But, try running the program again. Dyck Co-Director Center for Public Opinion University of Massachusetts, Lowell Lisa García Bedolla Vice Provost for Graduate Studies and Dean of the Graduate Division University of California, Berkeley Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Most recommended binary options robots Valley Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Professor Sol Price School of Public Policy University of Southern California. Run the program a few times, most recommended binary options robots, then exit QBASIC and type:. The code that QBASIC uses to convert letters to numbers is called "ASCII" pronounced "askee". Instead, it puts them together.